I am that I am 弗朗西斯·埃利斯“消耗” @NOWNESS

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试用弗朗西斯·埃利斯偏爱的方式,漫步在上海街头,局促的脚步、过剩的产品、一次性用品堆积的垃圾、路边被店家拴着脖子的狗,膨胀的物价与购买欲、“work hard, play harder” 般自我安慰……一切焦虑、仓皇弥漫在令人喉咙发痒的空气中,潜入身体内部。这是展览“消耗”(La Depense)被安置的城市,消费/耗费在乐观与悲丧的情绪之间牵扯着大众,或许你会在外滩美术馆那净白的殿堂中走进埃利斯的绘画,通过素描悉数与体会女孩盘发的动作。这位本可以在速写簿上留下宏伟建筑蓝图的艺术家,选择将时间耗费在平淡无常的生活细节之上。

建筑,恰恰是一桩要消耗大量人力物力的事业,在现代社会,它很大程度上显现了不动产的贪婪与雄心。所谓众人拾柴火焰高,建筑就是靠着这样的信心,成就着人类的建造神话。而事情总有它的另外一面,当地震来临或是海啸席卷城市,即使没有亲身经历,也难保不会在电视上看到,众志成城是如何显得渺小,坚实的信心可以被瞬间击垮成瓦砾。埃利斯在他的27岁遭遇了这个局面——墨西哥的震后灾景;很难说这不是让他放弃建筑转向艺术的其中一个原因。这个过程花了他将近十年的时间,而这十年,不仅仅成为他职业生涯的转向,同样也预示了他生命的转向。将长达9余小时的行为剪成9分54秒的影像,并起名为《实践的悖论1(有时行动只能引向虚无》;将十年时间里追逐龙卷风的经历浓缩成39分钟的录像作品;将4年绘制的820篇的手稿集合成为16秒视频——这些转向渗透在他作品的每一个孔隙——对于生产意义的质疑,对于有与无的判定,对于微小与宏大的踟蹰。

埃利斯的很多作品都基于行走、旅行或是漫步,像是《偷自行车的人》中在城市游走的安东。行走对于外界的干预而言,其效用是微乎其微的,存在与否似乎都无甚差别;如同在路上留下一条不具名的线、往身体的一边铲倒沙子、或是等着冰块融化。埃利斯将自身的劳作用这种细微、隐没的方式积攒在作品之中,像一位践行信念移山的愚公,在日常生活中创造他的寓言。1997年,他第一次来到上海,正是因为类似的作品缘由——《环行》(Loop),规避了在蒂华纳竞争激烈的美墨边界:利用他在圣地亚哥举办展览的费用,乘飞机从蒂华纳飞往墨西哥城、巴拿马城、圣地亚哥、奥克兰、悉尼、新加坡、曼谷、仰光、香港、上海、首尔、安克雷奇、温哥华、洛杉矶、最后南到圣地亚哥;通过这种方式从外部绕行美墨边境。这当然是他对边界进行的身体力行的思考,与此同时,也是一种对于“逾越”的另类说明。从墨西哥的一侧非法穿越美墨边境的围栏与绕行都能到达另一侧(美国),二者的差距不仅在于时间与体力的耗费,也在于身份和个人权力的悬殊。11年后的今天,这样的悬殊在美墨边境面临移民潮时再次被铺展在世界眼前:北上的难民拖家带口地朝着美国前进,口中喊着:“我们可以。”可以怎样呢?在他们心里,他们意图穿越的是贫穷与温饱、暴力与安全之间的边界。而埃利斯则借《环行》表露出心中叹息,将墨西哥作为第二故乡的他,也只能以第三者的身份对这象征性的边界添加注脚。边境总是相对而言的,如同生产性也是相对而言的一样。

这种相对性也发生在他追逐龙卷风的时刻,2000年开始的“龙卷风”项目或许是他时隔14年之后,对自然力量的重新审视。龙卷风不再是绝对摧毁性的象征,而成为一种可以捕捉的、令人“上瘾”的体验。项目的起因缘于2000年墨西哥经历的一场重大政治变革,那场变革原本意味着开放与民主,结果却被证明是一场闹剧,什么都没有发生。不仅如此,在那之后,墨西哥陷入贩毒与腐败的暴力漩涡。龙卷风对埃利斯而言,成为了这个创伤时期的隐喻。直接体验这场风暴不仅意味着你要花长久的精力去计算这个庞大之物的降临,也要求你在终于面对它时能够不被那未明的力量与恐惧威吓停止,暴力留下的阵痛仅仅发生在进入与离开的时刻。而风暴的中心或者说是内核,却是一种令人窒息的安静。埃利斯像着魔一样重复体验着这样的过程,他把这比作冲浪。这更多的是一个等待的过程,在兴奋与恐惧的共同情绪中等待着遭遇,正如他所说,在生活的许多时刻也的确如此,阵痛过后也许什么也没有发生,而事件的风眼——如果你有机会进入那样的冥想时刻——或许你也能感受到那被沙石包裹的虚空中心。

关于龙卷风的研究,对纽结的风暴进行刻画生出了《出埃及记》近千幅相关素描手稿,女子重复着盘发并解开盘发的动作,以图像的方式与龙卷风关联在了一起。你尽可以打趣说,就像老天爷生气了会打雷,龙卷风或许就是“老天爷”在盘发。这听起来像个笑话,却被埃利斯认真对待了。至少在工作量上,他对龙卷风与盘发的诠释都付出了应有的敬意。基于圣经第三章第14节,摩西问神:如果以色列人问起你的名字要如何回答,神回答说:“我是我所是的。(I am that I am)”这句重复句式是盘发动作同义反复的隐喻,也事实上成为埃利斯创作的哲性注脚。另一方面,它为展览提出的“非生产性消耗”与“生产性消费”关系问题作出了回应。事物因其所是的,而成为其所是。这是埃利斯理解与肯定世界的方式,他用这种方式,逃逸现代社会追究效益、可测性、理性等等的价值体系。女子盘发,或许正是因为这没有任何意义,才值得他花将近四年的时间去描画。

这种肯定价值的自有性,最终也会在他人生的定锚之处闪烁着意义。在采访最后,我问埃利斯如果不做艺术会做什么?这或许是个傻问题,却得到了一个真诚的答复。他说到恰好是前一天,他的朋友们在饭桌上提起这样的话题,她说:我们之间都有着相同的热情,又恰好把它们都倾注在了艺术上。而事实上,我们最终是可以把热情放到其他的东西上,成为木匠、律师或是医生。生活最终让埃利斯成为了一名艺术家,而在他看来,他很可能成为别的什么样的人。生活是其所是的样子,若不然,他或许也可以成为一位好父亲。

 

Liquid Health 液态健康 @Goethe Open Space

 

Liquid Health is a fictional cultural and creative company established by Li Hanwei, which exploits Chinese culture to conduct brand development, thereby creating a cultural brand that is designed to cultivate the body-mind-soul-spirit of human beings. On 13 January 2019, the exhibition entitled by the brand’s name “Liquid Health” will open in the context of the Goethe Open Space at the Department of Culture and Education of the German Consulate General. The entire office space will be transformed into a private lounge of the brand, and also the latest product series of Spiritual Beauty Instrument will be launched on that day.

Beauty mask instruments, eyes massagers and face lifting instruments ….. All these provincial TV products stem from advertisements the artist watched as a child. These ads usually arise from very spontaneous and shallow thoughts, and end up with shoddy produced “landscapes”. They also form the narrow core of “Chinese Dream, Blue Dream”. Together with the artificially high GDP and the overwhelming promotion of a great nation image their advertisers share a common enemy, and these circumstances form a strong contrast to the “American dream” that once tempted many people of the world.

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Ultimately, this exhibition may be seen as a confrontation between “Socialism with Chinese characteristics” and “American Imperialism.” Li Hanwei chose to stand on a side more related to himself. This means that he does not observe these Chinese phenomena with a Western gaze, but rather adopts abundant local resources in his artistic work. By so doing, he emphasizes more the cultural landscape in China’s special environment than just focusing on issues of pan-capitalism (like most post-internet art do).

If you would like to experience these cultural landscapes, just visit the Cross Tower at No. 318 Fuzhou Road in downtown Shanghai. Enter the lobby of this office building through the revolving door, and turn right into the “Liquid Health” high-grade private club. The first thing jumping into your sight will be the reception desk and the money drawing feng shui pool, which appear at the same time as our glittering brand logo. You can choose to stroll around, or lie on a comfortable lounge chair to watch the brand’s promotional videos. All this creates the cultural ambience for our brand. Three brand new spiritual beauty instruments, as this time’s blockbuster products released by Liquid Health, will provide unprecedented spiritual sublimation for customers by means of Chinese culture. Here, as a product, culture becomes purer and pleasing. The cultural impoverishment caused by the landscape will be compensated by a landscape correspondently. The healthy liquid, is the “zen” of lifestyle, “be water” encouraged by Bruce Lee, a cultural form that is floating and flexible, and it is also an anonymous thing, which is omnipresent, wrapping and pervading you.

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液态健康是李汉威建立的虚拟文创公司,利用中国特色文化进行品牌研发,借此塑造一个滋养人类身心灵健康的文化品牌。2019年1月13日,歌德开放空间将呈现品牌的同名个展,整个办公楼式的空间被改装成品牌的私人会所,并同时发布“液态健康”的最新产品系列“美灵仪”。

美容面具、眼保姆和瘦脸仪······这些地方性的电视营销产品来自艺术家从小耳濡目染的广告。拍脑门想出来的点子和粗制滥造的“景观”是此类广告的群体性特点,也形成了中国梦梦之蓝的局促内核。这些广告商与虚高的GDP、铺天盖地的大国形象宣传同仇敌忾,和曾经诱惑着全球人民的“美国梦”形成了鲜明对照。究其根底,这或许是中国特色社会主义与“美帝国主义”的对抗。而李汉威选择了更切己的阵地。这意味着他不是用西方化的眼光审视中国现象,而是从自身出发去采用丰富的本地资源。他针对的不是泛资本主义的问题(如大多后网络艺术一样),而是中国特殊环境中的文化景观。

想要体验这些景观,你需要找到位于上海市中心福州路318号的华设大厦,通过旋转门进入办公楼大厅,并右转步入“液态健康”的高级私人会所。首先映入眼帘的是接待前台与招财风水池,它们与金闪闪的品牌标识同时出现。你可以选择随处逛逛,或者躺在舒适的躺椅上观看品牌的宣传广告片,而这一切都是为了营造品牌的文化氛围。最新打造的三款美灵仪,作为“液态健康”此次推出的重磅产品,将通过中国文化为用户获得前所未有的精神升华境界。在这里,文化作为一种产品,变得更加纯粹并旷人心怡。景观造成的文化贫乏,也将由景观来弥补。健康的液态,是生活方式化的“禅意”,是李小龙的那句“像水一样(Be water)”,是流动随行的文化形态,也是无处不在包裹着浸染你的不具名的东西。

Despite Our Ruination 尽管我们毁灭

by Jenny Chen / Giulia Colletti / Kate Davis / Thomas Laval / Viola Yip
Despite our Ruination was included in the exhibition It was a dream of a trip which was curated by 21 curators and hosted by Shanghai Curator Lab. We took one month to work together in a tense situation. That was too crazy to be true. Thanks for all friends/cooperators/enemies, I’ve learnt a lot in this long lasting dream/nightmare. 

“A constellation is made up of some stars that are nearer, others further away. It is only from our perspective, that of the here (and now), that they appear to take on a significant configuration.”

Spencer, Lloyd. “On Certain Difficulties with the Translation of ‘On The Concept Of History’”, 2000

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In an age of rising accountability over our most intimate gestures, where governance of borders, rights, and minds seems to be the norm, how can we evade regulation and take a journey into the unknown?

 

Taking cue from Walter Benjamin’s critique, Despite Our Ruination is
an exhibition that emanates from a constellation of objects. Displaying alphanumeric messages, a pager embodies impending automation, as well as the interdependency between humans and technology, which in our informational era is tinged with mysterious impulses. Within the constellation, these impulses are explored through the I Ching, an ancient Chinese divination text, using cleromancy to establish unexplored connections with the universe. Reimagining the rules that govern reality is a task also undertaken by science fiction novelist Octavia Butler, whose seminal book Wild Seed explores power struggles, eugenics, and cyborg identities. The blurred edges of actuality and fiction are at stake even in The Real As Imaginary, a piece by Peter Ablinger consisting of the recitation of a text over white noise that completely envelopes the speech. The white noise is, in fact, a theoretical idealization, assimilated to natural sounds such as the rain in a forest, which nurtures organic and inorganic species. In forests disturbed by humans, the matsutake grows. It is a mushroom utilised by Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing as a trope to picture a post-Enlightenment natural world, one that can answer to the promise of cohabitation in a time of unprecedented human destruction. These entities are assimilated into a natureculture vision, aimed at re- establishing a synthesis of nature and culture in a time when the dualism of science and the humanities prevails.

 

The constellation opens up to a series of artworks that challenge normative structures of thinking while stimulating critical paths. This interpretative exercise draws on artistic practices that deconstruct limitative visions on the environment,
noise, and the future of human and non-human species. The invited artists’ research spans from visual to sound art to suggest further vanishing points that jeopardise Western normative accounts of measurability, language, and rationality. Fostering an object-oriented approach that rejects the privileging of human existence
over the existence of nonhuman 10 identities, Despite Our Ruination is an invitation to explore routes not yet standardised.

 

Lastly, Despite Our Ruination proposes a Virtual Reality experience of the exhibition. Accessible via an internet link it introduces an extraterrestrial setting for the artworks presented. In this free space, the conventions of the white cube no longer assert a rational framework rooted in the history of exhibitions.

Pager

Supposedly technology never dies, it’s just no longer dominant; like the pager. Mostly seen in movies, their obsolescence is assumed. However, pagers are still used in hospitals, as for urgent messages, their simplicity makes them more efficient than the pervasive smartphone. Today, we work alongside ever-evolving and increasingly intelligent machines already capable of independent learning and development. Imagine that we are the pager and these machines the smartphone; what type of future awaits us?

This, of course, is not an accurate comparison. As biological beings we have to adapt to new conditions; otherwise, we die. That being said, some humans and machines already function as cognitive units, as for the past few decades humans have bent the laws of natural selection that previously governed Earth and life. Despite the vast quantities of data being gathered, and the multitude of scientists, technologists and futurologists attempting to answer this question, future forecasts vary greatly and there are no conclusive answers or solutions.

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I Ching

I Ching, also known as the Book of Changes, is an ancient Chinese divination text and one of the oldest Chinese classics. Published in the Western Zhou period (late 9th century BCE), I Ching was first mentioned in Europe by Leibniz in 1703. This sparked philosophical questions, such as universality and the nature of communication. The foreword of the English edition of I Ching was written in 1949 by Carl Jung.

For Jung, I Ching was a way of exploring the unconscious, and an approach to the nonhuman field. As stated in his introduction: “The Chinese mind, seems to be exclusively preoccupied with the chance aspect of events. What we call coincidence seems to be the chief concern of this […] mind, and what we worship as causality passes almost unnoticed”. (1) The I Ching not only offers a path into the unknown but raises a counter perspective to scientific causality by investigating the asynchronicity of real events.

Wild Seed

Octavia E. Butler was an African- American science writer. Her novels and short stories tackle a scope of issues still omnipresent today, such as climate change, the increasing gap between the rich and the poor and pharmaceutical developments, as well as sexual identity. Her science-fictional storytelling warns of malignant possibles, and gives voice to destitute living forms, offering a path for an expanded understanding of the world.

Butler’s novel Wild Seed (1980) introduces Doro, a thousand-year-old cyborg living off the bodies of others. A gang from the New World destroy the African village Doro cultivated for centuries, and force him to leave. On his way, he meets a shapeshifting and equally powerful rival; Anyanwu, able to heal with a kiss. Their encounter triggers a century-long conflict jeopardising the essence of humanity.

Aside from her published writing, Butler’s notebooks serve as a space for her innermost thoughts. These pages enliven Butler’s practice and inform
her inspirations and horizons. Partial sketches of a novel, or an expression of a condensed state of mind, mirror the author’s profound wishes for humankind.

The Real as Imaginary

Peter Ablinger’s The Real as Imaginary is a composition for a solo speaker and noise. The performer can have any voice type; however, the text should be translated into a language that the audience can understand. The performance noise track should be generated by the sum of frequencies in the recording of the performer’s recitation of the text. The noise track, then, needs to be further filtered through oscillated frequency bands to create “windows”.

As a result, this noise track is played at a volume that is just loud enough to envelop the performer’s voice; but with the oscillated “windows”, the voice floats between the foreground, background and space in between.

The Real as Imaginary questions whether the “imaginary” and the “real” oppose each other in our perception. Ironically, perceiving reality relies on our imagination, as Ablinger expressed, “I had asked whether it would ever be possible to reach the real, whether it would ever be possible to break through the prison of my imaginations onto the real.” (2)

The monologue allows Ablinger to search for the idea of the “real”, and the relationship between the “real” and the “imaginary”. At the end of the text, he concludes that:

The imaginary as real, and equally the real as imaginary – this would then be, so to say, a formula for the interpenetration of the two, a formula for the living and for the being-here.” (3)

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Matsutake

We are stuck with the problem of living despite economic and ecological ruination. Neither tales of progression nor of ruin tell us how to think about

collaborative survival. It is time to pay attention to mushroom picking. Not that this will save us – but it might open our imagination.”(4)

The matsutake is one of the most expensive mushrooms in the world, as it grows in destroyed forests across Asia and North America. Due to its capacity to nurture trees, matsutakes enable forests to flourish in human-damaged places. It
is also an edible delicacy in Japan, where it can fetch astronomical prices. In The Mushroom at the End of the World, Anna Tsing offers insights into areas far beyond just mushrooms, using the matsutake to ask a crucial question: how are we going to live in the ruins we have made?

The matsutake becomes a metaphor to narrate a tale of diversity within our daunting landscapes, exploring the unexpected edges of consumerism, and challenging the connections between capitalist destruction and collaborative survival within multispecies landscapes; demonstrating the potential for fungal ecologies to foster a better understanding of cohabitation in a time of significant human destruction.

Notes
(1) Wilhelm R. (trad.) and C.G. Jung (Foreword), The I Ching, or, Book of Changes. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 3rd edition, 1967.
(2) https://ablinger.mur.at/i+r_the-real. html
(3) https://ablinger.mur.at/i+r_the-real. html
(4) Tsing, A., The Mushroom at the End of the World: On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

P2P 剩余空间 @ArtShard

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恰逢比特币十周年,这一采用点对点网上与共识主动性,开放源代码,以区块链作为底层技术的加密货币,由化名为中本聪的作者于20081031日发表白皮书。200913日,创世区块诞生,裹挟着质疑、盲信与资本的狂喜发展至今。

使这一电子加密货币成为可能的 P2P 概念被策划小组 Passing Fancy(朱筱蕤 & 弗雷迪·克鲁兹·诺维尔)恰逢及时的作为剩余空间1013日开幕的展览题目。P2P 意味着去中心化 (无中心服务器,每台计算机或“peer”充当其他计算机的服务器)、平等的用户地位与关系(任何人皆可参与)、无版权限制的资源共享(允许访问各种分布式资源:如文件或外围设备)。这场展览,借由这些新世纪网络滋养与共生的乌托邦意识形态,幅及了最早由 Seth Price 2003年录制的文字式电脑游戏 Romance Cory Arcangel 今年创作的 istheapplebeesondelcoparkdrinthesuburbsofdaytonopenrightnow 这十五年不长不短的时间。

P2P 令人瞩目的特点,是其全新的资源分配、传播与集散的方式。而在2014年,集散Distribution)也被 Karen Archey 和岳鸿飞援引至展览后网络艺术(尤伦斯艺术中心),作为网络艺术实践的其中一个面向被讨论。当时涉及的文本也包括 Seth Price 的《分散》(Dispersion, 2002) 。集散,不仅意味着文本的形式/媒介流变(如作品 Dump Bin 2016-2018)中注定过时的 DVD 影带)以及媒介变换产生的意识或是主体重构;也指涉了此次展览所提出的自相矛盾的权力结构与用户端(与背后的主体)之间的社会关系。

策划人十分了然去中心权利结构的自相矛盾。你可以看到 Cory Archangel 直接了当的作品 The Source (2013) 将开源代码作为作品,以纸本的形式呈现在展览现场。作品展现着与版权限定、作者权威分庭对抗的概念,不免令人联想到莫瑞吉奥·卡特兰围绕复制概念在余德耀策划的展览“The Artist is Present”。通过这样的并置,所谓自相矛盾的结构开始逐渐显现为西方内部的利益矛盾。

P2P 的形成与传播与版权法的建制几乎开始于同一时期——二十世纪七八十年代。它们几乎可以被视为生长于同一土壤之上的对立面。剩余空间与余德耀美术馆的两个展览面对着十分相似的议题,开源与复制/挪用所预设的假想敌始于西方语义中的版权限制。这一限制导致中国在官方立场窘迫,自1989年起就面对着知识产权保护的压力,1991年,美国开始将中国设为“301条款的重点国家,持续近30年的中美知识产权论战围绕的也是这个时期建立的法案——1974年贸易法案》。也是从那个时期开始,知识被过渡成了产权,不可计算的被归入了资本的评估领域。 在这30年间,中国的音乐/视频共享平台、山寨文化与复制在意识形态上屡受责难,另一方面,却被艺术家们乐此不疲地援引为创作素材。P2P 的原罪在于,它产生于建立创作权威的时代环境,并只有依赖这样具备有效型的敌方,才得以生存。试问,假设在一个从来不将知识视为产权的国度,P2P 还能否保有它的道德光环与看起来激进左倾的姿态?

展览同样将人类主体放入问题当中,策划人将点对点网络中的 peer 还原成了身体,未被定锚的是这身体的存在状态以及各个身体之间的关系。正如比特币白皮书(Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System)所总结的,它提供了一种不需依赖信任的电子交易系统。这折射出的是 P2P 用户在信息时代中的社会生活所共同面对的脆弱与焦虑。郭奕豪的作品 The Floor (2014-18) 在此正是释放着这样的情感维度。他将即时信息的聊天过程转换为实体空间的行为,观众面对着一扇不断被递出纸片的门,煞白的门和墙体保持一致,个体似乎隐于这层白色背后,又似乎触手可及(只要打开那扇门)。然而(墙内外的)双方都为了保持某种安全感而选择不去打开那扇门。本来真实鲜活的肉身甘于成为那个只产生只言片语的用户端。这种精神焦虑与交流的被动性正造成了现代社会原子化的个体,个体的亲密关系也朝着 P2P 网络的连接图示趋近。

如策展人所言,这场展览既是关于被构想的互联网政治,也同时关于个体用户的主体性。P2P 呈现的去中心的雄心与因此被碎片化与孤立的交往方式是原生的因果关系,他们必然是虚拟空间和现实生活都固有的。展览作品通过不同的方式揭示了网络社会的意识形态坐标,无论是线上的身体,还是使互联网成为现实的血肉之躯,使其成为现实的终究是可触摸的人造基建与操作着用户端的个体,P2P 的症结也就是当代主体的症结,如何去思考或者能否去思考它,我们不能靠  Jenna Sutela 的那些智能粘液来告诉我们。

日光之下无新事 @ArtShard

yuz museum 余德耀美术馆

The Artist is Present_Poster

“艺术家此在”或许翻译的并不确切:“The Artist is Present” 在阿布拉莫维奇(Marina Abramović)的展览中指的是艺术家自身的到场,而在余德耀美术馆以复制为名的展览中,阿布拉莫维奇的缺席,成全了卡特兰(Maurizio Cattelan)的“艺术家在场”。在这语境中,艺术家因为复制而显现,无论是被复制者还是那位精明的剽窃者。我模仿故我在,正是卡特兰的艺术哲学,当然,这也将一直以来在艺术创作中暗涌的线索拎出了水面。

复制在挪用的意义上开始于立体主义的现成品拼贴,似乎从源头开始就已经预示着现代性的断裂,立体主义对西方传统透视的反叛在毕加索(Pablo Picasso)那里演化成了对架上绘画的反叛。毕加索首次挪用现成品作为艺术,走出那突破性的跬步,在此之后,杜尚(Marcel Duchamp)的现成品实践开始变本加厉。当1917年他的《泉》(Fountain)被纽约中央宫殿的展览拒绝之后,现成品挪用以其争议性的身份终于在艺术史站稳了脚跟。这样的回溯至少为我们链接了立体主义的源头,哈里斯(Karsten Harries)曾在其书《无限与视角》(Infinity and Perspective)中对传统透视法提出疑问:一种受透视法支配的艺术如何能够揭示实在?对于新艺术和新科学的怀疑萌生了立体主义,而这同时揭开了一个世纪的挪用史序幕。

超现实主义借由梦与潜意识将日常物的形象带入作品。本雅明(Walter Benjamin)于1936年写就《机械复制时代的艺术作品》(The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction),这本书主要针对的是艺术复制品的传播现象,与艺术家对现成品的挪用还有所不同。但或许就是因为这本书,启发了60年代将文化传播的复制力与现成品结合的波普艺术,直到布里奥(Nicolas Bourriaud)在 2002年出版《后制品》(Postproduction),这条线索就一直没有在艺术史的思考中断过;布里奥认为从20世纪90年代初以来,艺术家通过翻译、再现、重新展出和利用现成作品或文化产品来制作作品,这种现象或许正是回应了信息化时代的乱象,“原创”的观念在这种新文化风景中变得模糊起来。

事实上,在这场对复制的正名展中,“原创”的真正含义更值得深究。卡特兰将此作为理所当然的前提来反之,然而到底什么是原创?能够援引的判断可能来自知识产权法中的条目,而往往在发生版权纠纷时,所谓原创、抄袭的给定只是双方律师博弈之下产生的或然结果。也就是说:通常意义上的原创,很可能只是社会建制不得已为之的提法。丹托曾用布里诺盒子的例子证明艺术史的终结,而黑格尔认为艺术终结于更早的时候:“艺术早在现代国家形态出现的时候就消亡了,因为后者为自己管辖之下公民的生活确立了形式和法律,从而使艺术失去了真正赋形的功能……”。美国于建国不久就发布了第一版版权法,“原创”的意义在某种程度上,开始被限制在了法律与权益的层面。

莎士比亚(William Shakespeare)对“原创”似乎是嗤之以鼻的,林奇(Jack Lynch)在论文《完全可接受的文学盗窃实践:抄袭、版权和十八世纪》(The Perfectly Acceptable Practice of Literary Theft: Plagiarism, Copyright, and the Eighteenth Century, 2002)中提到:莎士比亚“更加倾向于避免不必要的发明(invention)”。而《错误的喜剧》(Comedy of Errors, 2011)的作者拉斯玛森和贝特( Eric Rasmussen & Jonathan Bate)也说到:当我们赞扬差异时,莎士比亚的第一批观众则喜欢相似性——一部作品好,不是因为它是“原创”,而是因为它类似于一部令人敬佩的经典典范。

就此,我们重返余德耀美术馆现场,重新思考这个不那么“原创”的展览时,或许就不会对卡特兰的声明感到如此讶异了,也更能体会他在澎湃的专访中说到:“有个哲学家曾经告诉我,制度应该随着人的变化而变化”意味着什么。但受过中国文化影响的观者,似乎要在其中感受到某种吊诡的地方——卡特兰曾在采访中提到:“我有幸拜访到一些中国艺术家的工作室,他们在应对此话题时的轻松自在让我着迷。”而事实上, 艺术上的复制与模仿曾深深植根于中国传统文化,历代画家均有仿前人的传世之作(沈周、査士标、刘珏、八大山人等等皆留有仿倪云林的画作,类似的例子不胜枚举 ),中国艺术家自古就对这话题表现的轻松自在。卡特兰对于“复制”的正名在中国这块土壤上的意义,似乎显得略为牵强。

那么“The Artist is Present”从何意义上承担着原创性与“新”呢?卡特兰自身否认了这种可能,如圣经传道书所言:“已有的事后必再有,已行的事后必再行,日光之下并无新事。”原创性到底是什么?卡特兰认为,它在人类世界中根本不存在。格罗伊斯(Boris Groys)在其专著《论新》(On the New, 1992)中对此早有预见。但他并不对原创性进行否定,而是重新定义了“新”,借由克尔凯郭尔(Soren Kierkegaard)《哲学片段》(Philosophical Fragments, 1844)中所指出的:“新”并不等同于具有差异(这是无意义的差异,如一辆新车和一辆旧车的差异),而是意味着无差异的差异,或曰超越差异的差异,一种我们无法识别的差异。产生“新”的唯一前提,就是相似性。这将格罗伊斯带到了关于“现成物”的讨论,而杜尚的作品则呈现了这种超越差异的差异。这种差异借由博物馆(艺术空间或整个艺术体制)显现。

正是这种超越差异的差异使艺术家对现成品的使用具有了合法性——“一件艺术品只有当它在特定的意义上和其他任何日常物品、或流行文化产品相似的时候才可能是新的。”而由此博物馆成了不完全再现艺术史的空间,而是产生和展示当代新艺术的机器。在余德耀美术馆的17个房间中,处处存在的正是此种差异。正是因为博物馆的存在,这场关于复制的展览,才仍然能呈现“新”的概念。日光之下无新事,但博物馆这个仅借由人造光说话的空间,却是“无差异之差异”的可能空间。

环形狩猎 Hunting Cycle

展览海报(16:9)RGB

艺术家:陈冷、李汉威、陆平原

策展人:陈嘉莹

展期:2018月10月21日–12月31日

“环形狩猎”呈现了三位年轻艺术家的作品:陈冷的巨幅图像如天降业障般矗立在野外、李汉威汲取自身文化记忆而虚构的重武公司与陆平原因当地创作的故事;将通过不同的路径诠释当下的人文境况,并借由没顶公园特殊的地理环境织造一个跳脱城市喧嚣的局外境况。

狩猎,隐射的是一种捕猎状态,猎者可以是消费者、创作者或是任何一个等待猎物出现的角色,而在这个展览中猎物成为了工业产出、传统文化、想象力,甚至艺术家自身。猎者捕获猎物的过程,同时也被假象中的“牺牲者”控制着。这样的双向关系或许源于技术/工具的反身性。展览将通过影像、文本、装置与这样的周遭环境,呈现一个复杂丰富的狩猎关系。

Artists: Chen Leng, Li Hanwei, Lu Pingyuan

Curator: Chen Jiaying

Exhibition period: 2018.10.21-12.31

“Hunting Cycle” presents the works of three young artists: the huge image by Chen Leng stands in the wild as if an evil creature falling from the sky, the fictitious Heavy Weapons Company by Li Hanwei base on the artist’s own cultural memories and the story Lu Pingyuan inspired by the local environment. These different paths interpret the current humanistic contexts and create an outsider circumstance jumping out of the bustle of the city through MadeIn Park’s unique geographical environment.

Hunting refers to a state of “catch and hunt”. The hunter can be a consumer, a creator or any character waiting for the prey to appear. In this exhibition, the prey becomes industrial output, traditional culture, imagination, and even artists themselves. The process by which the hunter captures the prey is also controlled by the imaginary “prey”. Such a two-way relationship may stem from the reflexivity of technology/tools. The exhibition will present a complex and rich hunting relationship through images, texts, installations and such a surrounding environment.

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谁的乐土?@ArtForum

通过身体操练,美国文化在精神中建构出一副副被规训的身体,这些身体在所谓快乐的帝国中被高效使用并持续耗尽。

按:本文发表于 artforum 艺术论坛,感谢张涵露专业的编辑,让文章顺畅不少。

外滩美术馆的四楼除了灯光操作台与地上的标识线外,净无一物。观众正对着的门被两位身穿白雪公主戏服的人打开,艾萨·霍克森(Eisa Jocson)和她的搭档就这样安静的出场了。开始是全无表情的一系列动作模仿,让人想到奥利弗·拉瑞克(Oliver Laric)讨论拟像、再现和流行文化的作品《版本》(Versions, 2009-12),在其中他对两个卡通人物进行动作分析,相似却又略微不同。霍克森通常习惯一个人表演,而这场演出她选择了和搭档合作,互为副本,在舞台上,在观众的眼中,呈现出简单的比照。正是这种唯二的戏仿,呈现了重复性与差异,加深了他们作为一个模仿者的身份。

在这样的几分钟之后,两位演员的表情瞬间有了变化,那是种略带惊悚的突兀改变,如附灵一般,夸张虚假的表情转瞬出现在眉目间,他们继续重复简单的动作:定格、呼吸、抬手,复现了《摩登时代》里机械的身体,程式化的动作一再被演练。在这样枯燥的过程中,我一直在想为什么要用两位演员,除了呈现两个模本之间微妙的差异之外,霍克森还有什么企图?

结果似乎是显而易见的,因为你很快能体会到来自两性肢体之间的差别,在柔软与僵硬的动作之间渐渐分明。霍克森可能正是想要抹消这样的差异,在她的另一件作品《菲律宾猛男学院》(2014)中,其关注点就在于透过女性身体呈现男性的身体图像。她对猛男舞的舞姿和技巧进行研究之后,设计了一套教授女性学习猛男舞的课程。通过肢体的演绎,将自身化为雌雄共体之身,性别的社会性建构在其体内渐渐趋向于瓦解。再回到现场去思考这两个模本,性别特征被暗暗埋伏在两个躯体之中,她的男性搭档几乎很难让人看出破绽。

而后,他/她发出了声音。

像模仿白雪公主的小孩,却逼真得如童话里的经典桥段,精致上扬的语调,戏剧化的笑声,身体的婀娜多姿,像是将动画片一直5秒钟回放般的重复。这是在YouTube上随手就能搜到的片段:白雪公主在森林中俯头痛哭,而后被只兔子惊吓到,与森林动物们一起愉快的唱歌。当你渐渐被霍克森和其搭档的表演洗脑,并在卡壳般的重复回放中感到不适的时候,他们终于从反复的动作中退出,走向了观众,走到了画外,走进了迪士尼主题乐园。

“乐土”(Happyland)是迪士尼主题乐园的别称,也恰巧是霍克森出生地马尼拉贫民窟的名字。这一讽刺意味在香港的迪士尼乐园更显得微妙,在这个长期依靠菲律宾劳动力输出的城市,“乐土”中也有大量的菲律宾演员,程式化地诠释“快乐”成为他们的日常劳作。通过身体操练,美国文化在精神中建构出一副副被规训的身体,这些身体在所谓快乐的帝国中被高效使用并持续耗尽。而因为肤色的关系,菲律宾演员可以演其他的角色,但是被永远排斥在拥有“如雪肌肤”的白雪公主角色之外。

对于霍克森而言,皮肤是重要的意象,前不久在明当代美术馆的演出,以《皮肤》(Skin)为名,演绎了不同社会状况下的身体,肤色作为皮肤最重要的显征,折射着大量的历史背景与文化意义。被西班牙殖民超过三百年的菲律宾,遗留下来的对雪白肌肤的狂热,被全部投射在了白雪公主的角色之上。“I’m white, snow white”——童话故事中出现的一句无伤大雅的话,在《公主研究》中承担了决定性的作用。这样的身份建构,浸染在童话故事中,包裹着成人世界隐而不言的等级划分和文化暴力。霍克森采取了比保罗·麦卡锡(Paul McCarthy)更委婉的策略 ,她不把这个经典文本所扎根的现实粗暴的裸露出来,而是通过重复动作与情境的蒙太奇向我们细细解剖这个可恶的现实。

然而《公主研究》的意图还不仅于此,在一连串与观众的互动对话之后,表演者又回到重复机械的动作模仿,而这次他们的身体以持续加速的速度进入一种难以分清情绪的癫狂状态,定格扮演定格扮演定格扮演,与之前定格动作的 指涉不同,这样的状态更像是被摄影师跟拍,也像是青春期女孩不切实的幻想,这些过程向我们展示的是被凝视的身体姿态,它们面对的不是现场的观众,而是臆想的镜头;透过镜头倒影,他们似乎能看到自身肤色白皙的身体,同时又瞧见自己身为菲律宾女孩与生俱来的深色肤色。他们戏仿的欢笑声由矫揉造作到哭笑不得,似乎被一种自身承受不住的喜悦充盈着,最终,他们将身体甩向了地面,公主的裙摆不堪的掀起,盖住了精致的妆容,裸露出透着肤色的下体,乔装在顷刻间碎裂。

也就是在这个时刻,只是在这个时刻。他们真实的身体才真正被看见,这个身体毫无装饰,显露着遮盖不住的性征。与名和晃平《VESSEL》影像中的躯体不同,抹去头部的人体造就了陌生感,制造出非人的陌生生物;而白雪公主裸露的下体则让表演者回到“人”本身的位置,这个位置甚至不是人文主义的,裹挟着生而为人的野性与困窘,在摸索与蠕动中,两个躯体逐渐触碰到彼此,公主的裙摆终于随重力垂下,假发、发饰已被摘下零落在地面,他们散着长发,又开始了最初的扮演,演绎着被异化的众人。

顿时,净白的空间开始闪烁灯光,黄色/白色的色卡快速的切换,霍克森的用意显得那样直白:她将自己化身为涂色本里的“白雪公主”邀请观众为其填色,除了线框之外,颜色全由观众定夺。她把表演中所释放的问题留给了观众,当你拿起画笔去图画这位“菲律宾白雪公主”的时候,你要怎么去处理她的肤色,以及,怎样去定位这样的角色?或许,这只能让不同历史与文化背景的每一个个人来定夺。