Posts by Jenny CHEN Jiaying

Writer and Curator

夺回身体的主权?Regaining the sovereignty of the body?

In June 2016, an installation work showed Miao Ying’s solo exhibition produced an idyllic image with Photoshop’s “Automatic Content Recognition (ACR)” function, which was printed with the slogan “Reclaiming ownership of your mind, body, and future”. The title of the exhibition, Content Aware, means a tiny computer algorithm that gradually harvests your mind, body, and future in a comfortable hypnotic way. After the time jumped to two years, I submitted the PSA emerging curator’s project with a proposal titled “Hot and Yummy.” Before that, my friend had severe rheumatoid dysfunction due to excessive fitness, and all my friends were bothered by their uncontrolled body. On the streets of Shanghai, some of the street-facing gymnasiums show the people’s effort to reclaim the ownership of the body.

The American drama “BoJack Horseman” is depicting a world in which humans and anthropomorphic animals live together. In addition to the appearance, these animals are no different from humans. One episode tells about a chicken farm operated by chicken. In the advertisement of the farm, the chicken boss showed to the audience with a plate of broilers and said: “These animals are different from us.” To persuade the audience to consume and eat these broilers. This frame is described as a beginning to the exhibition, but in fact, this issue was not revealed at the time.

Until I found the case in the book How We Became Post-human: Gillian Brown’s research on the relationship between humanism and anorexia. It has shown that the anorexic person can “scrimp/maltreat” the body because the body is treated as an object that can be controlled and mastered, rather than being the inner part of oneself… The anorexia creates an image of the body and its skinny appearance. It is equivalent to tangible proof: the center of the subject of free humanism is not the body but the soul. Anorexia, in fact, in a broad sense, all dieters are engaged in a battle for self-control, escape the enslavement of food; make consciousness independent of the body. In BoJack Horseman, the body with consciousness (chicken boss) can hang the concept of “consciousness” outside the body of the broiler, so that the body of the broiler is simply supplied as material in the production chain (even if it looks exactly same as the subject of consciousness). This cognition originated from Descartes. “there is a vast difference between mind and body, in the respect that body, from its nature, is always divisible, and that mind is entirely indivisible”. In this context, people’s expectation and transformation of the body is always a kind of expectation and transformation of accidents. This also led him to make this statement: “it is certain that I am really distinct from my body,* and can exist without it.”

Since the time of Descartes, people began to more and more believe—our body can be completely under the control of consciousness (as long as our consciousness is strong enough). Lie in a nutshell: “When you can’t even control your weight, how can you control your own life?” The subject of free humanism regulates itself with such words. This also means that the body and mind are placed in a simple dualism. The body in it represents the part (affiliated part) that needs to be controlled. The result of such a distinction may be a completely pure body, a flesh that exists without minds, that is, the broilers in the world of BoJack Horseman. People demand their bodies just as the way they choose meat in the fresh food market: “The fat should be less, the bones should be a little more, the meat should be finer…” Such body also exists in our daily life in a way that is capitalized. Burroughs predicted Fredric Jameson’s assertion that “the information society is the purest form of capitalism.” When the body is structured into information, they can not only be bought and sold but also fundamentally adapted according to market pressure. Payne’s “Like Investment – ​​Long-Term Investment Plan” uses capital ambition to completely convert the body into investment products. In this art project, he plans to recruit 20 investors to “feed” an African-American bodybuilder to participate in a bodybuilding competition, and the bonuses won by the competition are the return on investment. By this means, he purifies the body into an investment object, and the mind of the investee (bodybuilder) is hidden in this capitalistic game. The fitness industry is a bridge that transforms the body into investment. It is also the master materializing bodies.

In the context of Foucault, it is also the field that regulates and standardizes the concept of “health”. It originated from the dualism of the body and the mind of free humanism. This is why many artists take this culture as a creative source. The industry perfectly symbolized the desire of the mind to control the body. It reshapes the relationship between the mind and the body by deeply materializing and objectifying the body. Diamond Stingily’s solo show titled as “Doing the Best I can”, Li Tingwei’s work You can say that you can do it!, Simon Fujiwara’s “Joanne” project and even Mika Rottenberg’s work The cardio solaric cyclopad-work from home as you get fit and tan and so on, are all narrated related issues. In Fujiwara’s project, this idea has undergone more complex examined. Joanne was originally an art teacher when Simon was at Harrow Middle School. After he graduated and left there, Joanne was involved in a fair because of her identity as a beauty queen. Her semi-nude photos were spread among students so that she lost her job. But what attracts Simon’s attention is Joanne’s multiple identities, and the contradiction between these identities, Joanne is also deeply involved in the art field which is sensitive to advertising, regulations, and materialization of the body. While at the same time, she is extremely self-visualization and objectification, and because of the training of art, she is also vigilant and introspective about these behaviors. Through the mixed meta-narrative, Fujiwara symbolized the sense of wandering between the identities as the name “Joanne”, and in fact, it also stands for the unstable human subject of this era.

Considering this issue from the perspective of Posthumanism, it involves the way we view the human-machine relationship. Katherine Hayles believes that the duality of body/mind becomes the duality of matter/information. Especially when we talk about how human consciousness can be removed from the physical carrier and converted into information to other ports. The “dematerializing” tendency of the first stage of cybernetics presupposes the separation of information and carrier. On Jiang Yuhui’s view, “this seems to be clear, once the theory applied to people, it will inevitably lead to profound problems. One of the most difficult problems is the dualism of mind and body in philosophy history. This philosophical problem since Descartes has triggered waves of debates, and when informatics restored human nature to information, it seems to have carried out the extreme and thorough advancement of Descartes’s original position.” The American TV series “Altered Carbon” expands the story with a similar background, the trailer’s few voice-overs offer an extreme vision of the future world:

Your body is not who you are

You shed it like snake shed its skin

We transfer the human consciousness between bodies

To live an eternal life

The poster of the TV series borrows from the body sealed in the plastic bag, which is a symbol of the 100% pure flesh, an affiliate without the host, and they are waiting to be possessed by the consciousness. Only then will these bodies become human.

Looking back to Miao Ying’s solo show “Content Aware”, it dealt with cybernetics. After human has eliminated the necessity of the body, then comes the world of the machine. And the function “content aware” of Photoshop means that the machine extends its tentacles into “aesthetics”, the most mysterious intellectual activity of human. The cases about how artificial intelligence can turn themselves into artists through the algorithm are often seen, but the peculiarity of “content aware” is that it is extremely small and only be used as a graphic design function, it provides the limited possibilities for people to choose from, so we think they’re still autonomy. Michael Connor thought this represents the “features for dummies” from the Photoshop to the new feature in sub-amateurish Meitu app. And “Practical/Half-Asseded Aesthetics” is a kind of aesthetics resulted from cybernetics, machines produce images for human, people are like machines generally accept those images. All these are happening in our deceptively free creative environment.

The advanced stage of Cybernetics is “allow particular computer data/code package spontaneously plan in the direction where the programmer never expected”. As Ian Chen’s “immersive artificial world” – a self-operated simulated eco-system, utilizing complex computer simulation technology in the system, he sets different environmental parameters, and let the system evolute automatically. Compare to this, Conway’s Game of Life, a cellular automaton invented by John Horton Conway in 1970, has already completed the prototype of this simulation. Philippe Parreno’s solo exhibition in London in 2015 titled as With a Rhythmic Instinction to be Able to Travel Beyond Existing Forces of Life also cited the automatic system. The artist divided the insect paintings into groups according to the particular algorithm. The “lifetime” of the image is determined by the progress of cellular automaton. It can live for a few minutes or up to a whole day. When each set of images “dies”, one of the images shortly freezes on the screen.

The parables that Parreno wants to tell are clear enough that the systems he refers to are not just models of life, but are themselves alive. When we successfully strip the body (material) down to the mind (information), it means that the self-evolving “information” in these computer programs is “alive” just as we are. When we begin to agree with such ideas, we also consolidate the status of mind (information) indirectly. According to Katherine Hayles, such a perception symbolizes a shift in the basis of the classification of life-forms that have led to a dramatic shift in the concept of human beings, and thus to the transition from human to the posthuman.

20166月苗颖个展上的一件装置作品以 Photoshop 内容识别功能制作了田园风光式的图像,上面印着收回你的思想、身体和未来的主权标语。展览的名字《内容觉醒》,意指一个微小的计算机算法,如何以一种舒适的催眠式的方式渐渐收割你的思想、身体和未来。时间跳转到两年后,我以一个名为《你看起来很好吃》的策展案投递了PSA青策计划。在那之前我的朋友因为过度健身导致横纹肌溶解险些肾衰竭,而身边的朋友也无一不为自己失控的身体感到烦恼。在上海街头,一些临街的健身房,以整面的玻璃墙展示着人们何以挥汗用意识争夺身体的主权。



直到我翻看《我们何以成为后人类》时遇到的案例:吉利恩·布朗 (Gillian Brown)  对人本主义与厌食症的关系进行的研究。研究表明,厌食者之所以能够克扣/亏待身体,是因为身体被当作一个可以控制和掌握的对象,而非自我内在的一部分……厌食者创造了一个身体的形象,其瘦骨嶙峋的样子,相当于一种有形的证明:自由人本主义主体的中心不在于身体,而在于心灵。厌食者,事实上从广泛的意义上说,所有的节食者都在进行一场争取自我控制的战斗,逃脱食物的奴役;使意识独立于身体。而在《马男波杰克》中,拥有意识的身体(鸡老板)可以将意识的观念悬置于肉鸡的身体之外,使肉鸡的身体单纯作为食材供应于生产链(即使它和拥有意识的主体看起来一模一样)。这样的认知来自笛卡尔,人的肉体就其有别于其他物体这一点来说,它不过是由一些肢体和其他类似的一些偶性组合成的;而人的灵魂就不是这样。在此语境中,人对身体的期望与改造总归是一种对偶性的期望和改造。这也导致他说出这样一句话:灵魂可以没有肉体而存在。

从笛卡尔开始,人们开始一步步的相信——我们的身体可以完全处以意识的操控之下(只要你的意识足够强大)。一言以蔽之:连自己的体重都控制不了,何以掌控自己的人生?自由人本主义的主体以这样的话语规训自身。这也意味者,身体与意识被置入了一个单纯的二元区分。而身体在其中代表着需要被控制的一方(附属方)。这样的区分可能导致的结果,就是一个完全纯粹的肉体,一个没有灵魂而存在的肉体,即一个马男波杰克世界中的肉鸡。人们如同在生鲜市场拣选肉类一样对自己的身体提出要求:肥肉少一点,骨头多一点,肉质精一点……事实上,这样的肉体也以一种资本的方式存在于我们的日常生活。伯勒斯预言了弗雷德里克·杰克逊(Fredric Jameson)关于信息社会是资本主义最纯粹的形式的论断。当身体被建构成信息的时候,它们不仅可以被买卖,而且还可以根据市场压力从根本上进行相应的改造。佩恩恩的《赖克投资长期投资计划》利用资本野心将肉体彻底转换为投资品。在这项艺术计划里,他计划招募二十个投资人出钱喂养一个非洲裔健美人士参加健美比赛,比赛赢得的奖金作为投资人的回报。通过这样的手段他将身体纯化为投资对象,而被投资人(健美人士)的意识则隐没在这场资本游戏中。健身行业是将身体转化为肉体的桥梁,也是物化身体的翘楚。从福柯的语境进入,它同时也是规驯健康观念的场域,而这根源来自于自由人本主义对身体/心灵二元关系的看待。这也是为什么众多艺术家将创作视角投向它的原因。这个行业完美象征了心灵对身体的掌控欲望,它通过将身体深度的物化与客体化重塑心灵与身体的关系。Diamond Stingily 的个展“Doing the Best I can”、李葶葳的作品 You can say that you can do it!Simon Fujiwara Joanne 项目甚至 Mika Rottenberg 的作品‘The cardio solaric cyclopad-work from home as you get fit and tan’等,无一不围绕着这一点展开。而在 Simon Fujiwara 的项目中,这种意识经历了更为复杂的审视。Joanne 原本是 Simon Harow 中学念书时的艺术老师,当他毕业离开后几年,Joanne 因为自己的选美冠军的身份卷入绯闻,她的半裸照在学生之间传播,因此丢了工作。但吸引 Simon 注意的却是 Joanne 的多重身份,与这些身份之间的矛盾性,Joanne 同时深处对广告、规训与物化身体过程十分敏感的艺术领域。她在将身体极端自我图像化与客体化的同时,也因为艺术的训练同时对这些行为保持警惕与自省。通过混杂的元叙事,Simon 将在这之间游走的意识符号化为了“Joanne”这个名字,而事实上这也象征了当下变动不居的人类主体。 

“Diamond Stingily Doing the Best I can”的图片搜索结果

“Simon Fujiwara  Joanne”的图片搜索结果


从后人类的视角去思考这个问题,这牵涉了我们何以看待人机关系的问题,凯瑟琳·海勒(Katherine Hayles)认为身体/意识的二元性在其中成为了物质/信息的二元性。特别是当我们谈论意识何以能够脱离肉身这个载体,转换为信息传输至其他端口的时候。控制论第一阶段的去物质化倾向预设了信息与载体的分离,在姜宇辉看来,这看似清楚明白,一旦运用于人的身上,则势必会引发深刻的难题。其中最棘手的问题正在于其中体现出的身心二元论的哲学立场。这个自笛卡尔以来的哲学难题已然引发了一波又一波的论争与激辩,而当信息论将人的本质还原为信息之时,它看起来确实是将笛卡尔的原初立场进行了极端而彻底的推进。美剧《碳变》(Altered Carbon,又名《副本》)以类似的设定展开故事内容,预告片的寥寥数句旁白就勾画出了一个极端的未来世界:

“Altered Carbon poster”的图片搜索结果

你的身体不代表你本人 (your body is not who you are)





回头看来苗颖的内容觉醒事实上处理的是控制论的问题。当人类自身将身体的必要性排除之后,接下来就是机器的工作了。而Photoshop 内容识别功能意味着机器将触角伸向审美这个最神秘的人类思维活动。关于人工智能如何能够通过算法将自己摇身一变为艺术家的案例屡见不鲜,但内容识别的特殊之处在于,它极其微小并且仅作为一种制图功能被使用, 它提供相当一部分的可能性供制图人选择,以至于我们认为自主权仍然在自己手上。麦克·康纳(Michael Connor)认为这代表了从专业图片软件 Photopshop 中的傻瓜功能到超级素人软件美图秀秀中的新功能等等。而方便美学/半屁股美学Practical/Half-Assed Aesthetics)事实上是一种控制论作用下的美学,机器代人生产图像,而人如机器一般接受这些图像。而这一切都发生在我们看似自由的创作环境中。

控制论的高阶是允许具体的计算机数据/编码包自发地向着程序设计员从未预想过的方向计划,如同 Ian Cheng 人工世界”——一个自己运转的虚拟生态系统,他利用复杂的电脑模拟技术在游戏中设置不同的环境参数,并让整个虚拟化的生态自动进化。相比这个具象化的模拟世界,约翰·何顿·康威在1970年发明的细胞自动机——康威生命游戏(Conway’s Game of Life——就已经将这个世界的雏形完成了。菲利普·帕雷诺(Philippe Parreno 2015年其伦敦的个展《超越现有生命力量的节奏性本能》(With a Rhythmic Instinction to be Able to Travel Beyond Existing Forces of Life) 也引用了这个自动系统。艺术家将昆虫的画作按照算法分成不同组,画面的寿命则由细胞自动机的进程决定。它可以存活数分钟,最长可以存活一整天。当每组画面死去时,其中的一张图画会在屏幕上出现短暂的冻结状态。


Tobias Rehberger #Rockbund Art Museum @NOWNESS

通往真相的纯真之眼往往最会欺骗,就像 Tobias Rehberger 那来自中土世界的魔戒面孔与身形,在垮裤与荧光夹克的衬托下,让人抓不住真相。他创作的外滩空间视效强烈且设计感十足,令其金狮奖获得者的头衔显得矛盾又再恰当不过。

尿屋欢迎您  | Welcome to the Pee(tea)house

外滩美术馆的传统建筑构造让每个进行委任创作的艺术家都颇费心思,与空旷的白立方展示空间不同,它能提供适合造梦的层级结构、升降的身体感知,以及互通各个梦境的过渡式阶梯。这令人想起 Tobias 曾于2016年在瑞士与德国边界创作过的公共项目——“24 Stops”。项目由两国之间相隔仅3.5公里的艺术机构 Fondation Beyeler Vitra Campus 发起。在这一段具有政治意味的连接场域,Tobias 将色彩明亮、具有亲和度与卡通质感的24个雕塑作为沿途的路标。边境线转而成为当地居民日常郊游与踏青的共享空间。

而在这个展览里,Tobias 如同将 “24 Stops”的空间逻辑折叠进了美术馆,并试图将彼此打造的全然不同。喧闹的肉铺、陈列着花瓶的暗房、必须先脱裤子才能体验的茶室、赛博式的声控装置空间和最后让人头晕目眩的咖啡馆。而咖啡馆与肉铺对应的太阳雕塑,将地球另一端 El Redomon(阿根廷)的时空也抛掷在这一切的蒙太奇中。用 Tobias 的话说用大脑边缘(periphery of your brain思考,意味着艺术家将自己的主观意识降低,模糊自己的态度与声明,让作品向观众敞开,并使意义让位给偶发的可能性与共享的乐趣。 每一层的作品都关乎于这样的交互,肉铺与咖啡馆邀请人们消费购买;茶室需要你先上个厕所,从后面开始;声控霓虹灯的闪烁取决于来者播放的音乐;即使在看似静态的肖像花瓶馆中,人与人之间流动的美学趣味也在进行着一种转换与交往。体验式消费成了关系美学中强调的人类交往

2009年,第53届威尼斯双年展因为一个让人晕眩的咖啡馆将金狮奖颁给了 Tobias Rehberger。这一年双年展的名字为《制造多重世界》 (Making Worlds)John Baldessari 用两个棕榈树墙绘营造他的海天一色,Tobias 则是将一战时期乍眼的军事迷彩运用进咖啡馆的公共空间。这个迷彩图案实际上出自英国画家诺尔曼·威尔金森之手,它显眼、浓重且极富美学意味,却是为了使人产生视错觉,使地方无法定位对象。迷彩的凸显属性与其模糊视知觉的意图显得自我矛盾,这令 Tobias 觉得有趣。而如同双年展题名所意愿的,他将历史战争的象征物隐入日常休闲的空间,制造了一个重解历史的可能。六年后,同样的迷彩被运用在真实的一战时期船舰 HMS President (1918) 上,Tobias 让其航行在伦敦的泰晤士河,使这个图像重新链接它的历史坐标与象征。波普(Pop)对他而言,是一种能够迂回处理严肃对象或是历史问题的方法,如同他借“24 stops”处理边境线一样。

双子座的双重投射 | Double projection of Gemini

许多时候我们因为误解与表达的失语而感到沮丧,在合作中,这烂俗的表现为甲乙双方的矛盾;在情感上,这意味着无法互相体认的切身之感;而在艺术作品的实现过程中,这造成了各个参与者的臆测、误读与想象——方案在艺术家脑袋中成形的样子、将这些样子转换成图像、向制作者表述方案,在处理实体物料时近乎崩溃的频繁调整、沟通、返工与确认。Tobias 把这些误读叫做投射projection),而他似乎乐在其中。


事实上,他的大多作品建立在误解之上,三楼的茶馆便是如此。Tobias 坦言他曾去过日本的正宗茶室,但发现他之前基于此的所有想象都是错的,他意识到西方人对于日本茶道的误解,而这样的误解被其定性为生产性误解并挪用进外滩美术馆现场。新设计的空间结构与使用顺序和传统茶道仪式看起来大相径庭,Tobias 以戏谑的方式将之起名为《最终,你可以从后面开始》(In the end, you can start from behind, 2019)。比起这个让人浮想联翩的装置作品,他在纽约曼哈顿公园中放置的人工日式园景 Tsutsumu N.Y. 2001)则显得稚趣十足。而当你在炎热夏天看到这日式园艺不合时宜的雪景时,或许更能体会他所说的错误想象,Tobias 的茶馆与园景如同我们惯有的文化偏见,重新投射回日常。


肖像画瓶系列则比之更显浪漫。通过想像朋友的样子、他们在审美方面的趣味,Tobias 设计了这些肖像花瓶,并邀请朋友们带来他们最喜欢的花。花的种类、颜色、数量出自无意识对美的选择,它们某种程度上成为花束主人的自画像。Tobias 像古典希腊胸像一样陈列着这些肖像花瓶,那乌黑的空间将花束与瓶子衬的发亮,高低错落与聚焦的灯光都使它们显得更为人性。

如同题目所言,这一切与观看有关,意识的真相通过眼睛照亮彼处,即使它出于错误的投射、或经过像素化处理、抑或是被迷彩折腾的晕头转向,但它们都为世界创造了艺术的幻象,也让不那么轻松的世界多了一点乐趣。如同万花筒般折射、重组,再将世界晕染,Tobias 在这一切的过程中,只是承担了三棱镜的角色。


上天府 #ArtChengdu @ArtForum







艺术成都就像看成都的艺术又如同看中国股市即使可能有纰漏但因为政府在前民众仍然充满信心所有运作可能无规律可言但并不意味着不能成事儿这样的状态演化出当地卧虎藏龙的美术馆生态隈研吾与原研哉参与设计的知美术馆位处中国四大神盘之一麓湖生态城中的A4美术馆以及聘用原欧洲摄影博物馆创始人让吕克·蒙特罗索(Jean-Luc Monterosso)为馆长的成都当代影像馆我在网上查美术馆地址发现赫然写着中加水岸销售中心”)。艺术成都期间开幕的几个展览大体上也符合国际化的发展目标特别是位处于国内最大的摄影主题公园——府河摄影公园的当代影像馆的七个开馆展初来乍到几乎让人分不清自己是在成都还是欧洲城市因为中法文化之春的关系影像馆的三个主推大展都来自法系摄影家塞巴斯提奥·萨尔加多亨利·卡蒂埃·布列松贝尔纳·弗孔从艺术家的选择展品质量到展陈设计都显得无可挑剔



麓湖·A4美术馆是我继艺术成都之后前往的首站穿过红砂岩的建筑门面你需要经过麓湖生态壮观的楼市沙盘沿着Roman Signer 的永久户外装置椅子面对的人工湖一路走到美术馆入口孙冬冬策划的何翔宇&梁琛双个展各自围绕一个母题展开:“柠檬阿莱夫”。两位艺术家都来自辽宁丹东如果你期待看到北疆冻土与西南盆地对撞的戏剧性效果那恐怕要失望了移居柏林多年的何翔宇在观念探索的路上基本已经完全抛却了早期创作中出现的那些与家乡密切相关的社会符号而建筑设计出身的梁琛对空间或环境的关注同样也更倾向于抽象认知层面美术馆上下二层被分为暗沉的黑与鲜明的黄一层何翔宇的个展题为家族”,实际围绕柠檬计划展开展出包括四部以柠檬与黄色为主题的影像与其他图像装置梁琛的展览题目阿莱夫则是来自希伯来语字母表的首个字母艺术家借由它象征的无限性用七种不同材质的布料将空间营造为七个具有生命维度的腔体”。二者引用的意象与言说方式都很难看出身份痕迹





第二届Art Chengdu国际当代艺术博览会现场

During, Doing @Artshard

2014年,Karen Archey 和 Robin Peckham 在尤伦斯艺术中心推出“后网络艺术”展,同为策展人的 Omar Kholeif 也于同年出版后网络相关文集 You Are Here: Art After the Internet我是在那一年后才听闻这个词,从一开始的疑问到参加中国美术学院的网络社会论坛,与后来连续两届将苗颖作为写作个案参与华宇青年论坛、与李汉威合作史莱姆引擎 VR 空间展览与他的个展。“后网络”这个词从陌生到清晰又迅速沉下认知的海底。Marisa Olson 可能是那个最早给“后网络”定名的人,她在杂志《超时》中曾提到:“比起在网络上创作,我所做的更像是网络之后 (art “after” the Internet) 的创作,这是我强迫性上网和下载的结果。我创作的表演、诗歌、图像、文本或是装置都直接来源于网络素材或是我的网络行为。”而眼下,似乎所有可见之物都已经成为“网络之后”的了。

Omar Kholeif,You Are Here: Art After the Internet

新美术馆的展览“艺术在此发生:网络艺术的档案诗学”(The Art Happens Here: Net Art’s Archival Poetics),2019

魔金石画廊,铁木尔·斯琴(Timur Si-Qin)个展“东,南,西,北”

瑞安·特雷卡丁,Ready(视频截帧), 2010,高清视频、音轨,26分47秒。©瑞安·特雷卡丁。图由艺术家、施布特-玛格画廊和睿阁画廊提供。

劳伦·康奈尔(Lauren Cornell),纽约新当代艺术博物馆科技部策展人及联合总监。 图片:Benoit Pailley, courtesy the New Museum







后网络这个名称到底意味着什么可能已经无人知晓,而与这个词相关的“新媒体”与“网络艺术”又在迅速变得过时。新美术馆的展览“艺术在此发生:网络艺术的档案诗学”(The Art Happens Here: Net Art’s Archival Poetics)基于延续两年的线上展览“网络艺术选集”(,讲述了80年代至今的网络艺术。在展览现场你因此有幸还能看到“古老”的电脑外形和控制界面,与如今表面光鲜、 Contemporary Art Daily 趣味式的作品不同,它们当初还满怀着反抗白立方展示空间的热情。作品也从早期依赖技术实体展示,发展为通过剥离隐性的技术特征,将它们包含的政治性与社会隐喻显露出来。当 Rhizome 在梳理这段不长的历史之时,Timur Si-Qin、Simon Denny、Ryan Trecartin 与 Lauren Cornell 等专注网络的艺术家与策展人也纷纷来到国内推出展览。随着曝光度的上升,后网络的意义变得更为流动不居。当然你可以通过媒介将它们定义为“使用网络”创作的作品,可随着网络的渗透,这样的界定变得过于宽泛。后网络曾经通行的那种散漫、无所事事,在现在看来可以被称为佛系的精神状态,或许是一种典型的后现代气质。鲁明军在2016年于没顶画廊策划的展览“过剩的想象,无所事事的绝妙”可谓是对这一状态的恰当总结,其中包括了李维伊、沈莘、王芮、王新一和钟云舒等七位艺术家的作品。由于画廊空间的性质与局限,展览无法包括像林科、陆扬、Kim Laughton 等艺术家,但在这样的主题下,艺术家已经各自呈现了个体微妙的叙事线索,与某种沉迷于自我经验的自在表达。同年 K11 邀请Hans Ulrich Obrist 策划了一个与黑客文化有关的展览“HACK SPACE”。将黑客文化与山寨现象并置,这种针对网络中的一个文化现象进行剖析与讨论的方式成为后网络艺术的另一面向。在其中,山寨、淘宝美学、网络直播、虚拟现实等等主题都成为讨论的对象。

K11 邀请Hans Ulrich Obrist 策划了一个与黑客文化有关的展览“HACK SPACE”
林科,截帧来自《China Boat 漂流》,录像,16:9,00hr16min33sec,2017,图像版权归艺术家及杨画廊所有
赵要,《奇迹》 2014-2015
关小,《池塘》,2019,黄铜烤丙烯,榆木,3D 打印,手机绳
Ian Cheng,展览现场


James Bridle 提出的新美学(New Aesthetic) 在许多艺术家身上得到印证(李维伊、赵要《奇迹》、郑源《游戏》、尉洪磊、关小、Ian Cheng、Tabor Robak 等),数字技术与互联网在物理世界中日益增长的视觉语言造就了层出不穷的景观;如2016年横空出世的《PokémonGO》游戏一般,虚拟世界与现实世界的错置、融合,随着AR/VR/MR等技术调用着你的感官与身体。而除景观之外,网络带来的关系变化为人们提供了分享的乌托邦愿景,剩余空间由 Passing Fancy(朱筱蕤和弗雷迪·克鲁兹·诺维尔)策划的展览“P2P”与余德耀美术馆的“艺术家此在”都呈现了这样的理想,在其中知识不再成为产权而是人类共有的开放资源;因为“挪用”概念的延续,艺术与日常生活之间的视觉界限也渐次模糊。另一方面,越来越多的艺术家通过艺术的线上市场建立自己的名声。全民网红的现象是指一介草根可以凭借快手、抖音这些网络平台崛起,也意味着任何一个艺术家可以通过社交媒介传播作品巩固自身的视觉语言。对艺术家 Brad Troemel 而言,这意味着作品要求的作者身份、艺术的版权与艺术品必需居于艺术语境之中的传统概念受到了挑战。而在这乱象中野蛮生长的,则是资本主义的建制与消费主义的狂欢。2016年的柏林双年展,艺术家与企业家之间的身份渗透,为后现代的景观又添上了浓墨重彩的一笔。Troemel 在其文章《社交媒体之后的艺术》的结尾说到:“那些将乌托邦主义与资本主义玩弄于股掌之间的加州意识形态技术人员(Califonian Ideology technogists) 对这一代媒介成瘾、创作几乎雷同的艺术家们负有责任”。


剩余空间《PEER TO PEER》展览现场

余德耀美术馆的“艺术家此在”,Superflex, Power Toilets/Council of the European Union, 2018

正因为此,越来越多的“后网络”艺术家开始逐渐清醒,从因网络而萎靡的个体意识中产生觉知。这意味着不再停留于网络带来的虚空盛景与网络内部裹挟的意识形态,而是从界面的那一边跳脱出来,返回到这个略显尴尬、双手僵持在键盘上的身体。这个反向过程必然带着极度的不适,但某种程度上,这等于跳离沈莘指涉的那种“危机与舒适并存”的场域。当你回望屏幕的深处,意识到“网”所链接的一个个原子化的个体,是《网络迷踪》中消失的  Margot,同时也是自己。电子景观背后的魔障、或是人工智能引发的主体危机、社交媒介与算法共谋之下的过滤泡沫与数据歧视;这些网络/技术系统背后的结构问题开始渐次破壳。后网络艺术显现出一种逐渐明晰对象的探索过程。从原始阶段对于网络这个单纯载体的创作与二元关系想象,到后来借用网络特性抒发后现代颓靡,延续至今,后网络艺术的敌方似乎越来越向网的背后退去。2018年底苗颖的个展“他山之石”,是一次“网络之后”的觉醒,从 “Filter Bubble Detox” 项目到此次的硬核数据排毒,都与佩恩恩的《坏数据表演》处理着同样的权力问题,个展的呈现形式借用古老的(瑜伽式)的身心灵修炼方法,结合VR戒瘾(《在现实中以毒攻毒》)技术与防火墙这些“他山之石”,营造了一个 New Age 式的体验空间。




将要落幕的广州三年展集中呈现了近几年艺术家对技术的沉思,1945年的文本《诚如所思》被放置在当下并面向即将到来的时间。加速的未来虽然意味着进步、变革或是激动人心的“奇点”,也象征着虚无主义、原子化的社会与 Michael Connor 所言:“网络造就的新自由主义的资本主义”(internet-enabled neoliberal capitalism)。在略显俗套的愿景和期盼中,对技术未来的遐想使我们深陷“进步”之中。卡斯滕·哈里斯在《无限与视角》中曾警惕,技术可能成为一种危险的力量,将其接触到的一切(包括人类在内)都还原为由技术规划加以组织的材料。后网络的社会人群也是如此这般地行走于自我脱离原位(self-displacement)与自我去中心(self-decentering)的倾向之中。在这段看似离题的言语中,我想说明的是,当我们在谈论后网络或技术的时候,我们事实上触及的是怎样的人情未来。Art Forum 的“有情绪”专题面对的正是类似的问题。而在哈里斯这本反思后现代的著作之中,他对技术(网络)做的最深刻的注脚就是“家”的沦丧,这个家是主体、是心之居所、是现代游牧人群无法定锚的方位,也是被技术理性所剥夺去的东西。拥抱技术与探索未知,意味着离家与在乡愁(nostagia)的情感间撕扯。这不是一个太时兴与“先锋”的概念,而在这里却能够成为调动后网络艺术发展的杠杆。


3月21日清晨上海艺术圈已经渗透着亢奋情绪这一天全球昼夜均分气象轮转收音机广播意外播报了政府对上海这一开幕季盛况的预告观点简单明了各大美术馆竞相推出外国艺术家的展览本土艺术家与艺术行业人才储备却略显欠缺这成为我去往外滩美术馆采访 Tobias Rehbeger 的前奏这位拥有无数品牌合作经历的金狮奖获得者仍穿着弯腰露出半个屁股的垮裤对着镜头说到:Welcome to the Pee(Tea)house。

于春季艺术周期间开张的除了外滩美术馆街对面的里森画廊之外还有西岸的油罐艺术中心里森贝浩登与外滩美术馆已经成为洛克·外滩源的三龙盘踞在上海市中心而油罐三馆开幕的建设中”、Adrian Villar Rojas 个展 teamLab 沉浸式展览也同样迎合了群展、IP个展和网红展的健康配比油罐作为西岸四大艺术中心的先驱首先实现了上海艺术长廊蓝图的一部分而明年这里还可能迎来西岸美术馆蓬皮杜)、星美术馆与梦中心的落成城市未来的重大规划裹挟着房地产开发与艺术圈地的共谋在上海艺术圈每年两次的候鸟迁徙很大程度上归因于资本的流转远客对此行来到上海的目的彼此心照不宣而他们的期盼似乎总不在此处所有人见面的第一句问候便是去香港吗什么时候去简单的日程对照基本可以满足匆忙见面的谈话需求







22日才是注意力经济真正开始血脉膨胀的一天,Goshka Macuga 策划展的媒体预览自上午9:30就已紧锣密鼓地开始了。Prada 对荣宅的良苦用心体现在建筑修缮的每一个细节但在繁忙的脚步间已成为浮华这是艺术周继PSA陈福善展览后的第二个收藏展紧随其后的还有CC基金会与OCAT的王兵影像收藏展 Prada 的不同之处在于邀请了一位善于调用文献、 历史与艺术作品的艺术家/策划人。Macuga 自身的创作方式与收藏展的概念可谓不谋而合我曾为何物?”展览手册后头列出的参照文本是我见过最多的时龄52岁的她同大多远道而来的外宾一样深受时差之苦却因为问到弗兰肯斯坦而愿意驻足攀谈片刻当我问她是否愿意在之后不那么忙的时候接受采访时她露出得救了的表情说道那样我就可以在平静中回答问题了




这样的期望在香港巴塞尔的倒计时中显得越来越奢侈下午正在所有人深陷去往西岸、M50 还是外滩看展的艰难抉择中时,“全部都去成为一个让人解脱的选项毕竟并没有什么人能够在开幕式上静下心来看作品和人群与作品打个照面拍照、say hi、发社交媒体自我在疾走与堵车的变速中适应着所谓发展中国家的节奏。15年前定居于上海的右翼加速主义者 Nick Land 早在当时就惊讶于中国政治引擎的巨大威力他认为中国对未来的迷恋和高速发展使其已经成为一个加速主义社会而今,“ART 24 HOURS | 上海艺术24小时” 成为技术+资本主义的微小案例形塑着加速群体的行动模式或许五年前你还在感叹伦敦或是纽约美术馆便利的通票制度而上海只花了两年时间依靠 o2o (online to offline) 的模式在这次艺术24小时中将超过50家的美术馆博物馆机构及画廊联结利用电子商务普及的优势迅速完成市场的资源整合事实证明艺术的资本化是件不那么难的事想到这些眼前不巧的经过运载着废弃摩拜单车的卡车残败与被淘汰的晦气景象实在与这热闹不符。3月的风如同往年一样仍然带着某种辞旧迎新的希望拂过脸面




23日周六是专业艺术圈开始收尾的一天也是普通观众倾巢出动看展的时机。“ART 24 HOURS”几日前已经发布他们的艺术周末计划书”,消费社会下的身体以这样的方式接受着规训。“一张艺术通票两天可看上海19家美术馆博物馆还可享受各种消费折扣。”看着这样诱人的字眼也能理解自己当初买下早鸟票的冲动消费者是被暴露兴奋点的小白鼠而商家总是知道自己能以何种方式起作用上海艺术三月的终点可能在昊美术馆也可能是OCAT。馆长张培力在开幕致辞时开玩笑说道选择了来到这个展览就意味着将错过昊美术馆的开幕马修克劳福德(Matthew Crawford)说的没错,“注意力是一种资源——且每个人都是有限的”。文安路30号的OCAT空间将影像收藏展作为落幕展实为一个不错的选择虽然在繁忙的艺术周里影像展对人们停留观看的要求可能过高但相反OCAT典型的昏暗展览环境与这次特别为影像展设计的隔音间中人们终于可以稍作休息这昏暗是格罗伊斯所说的美术馆的伟大夜晚”,观众因影像时间轴的牵制被迫将目光投向那个发光的对象而不是处于暗处的他者影像展莫名成为一个提供休息的中转点机器隐秘的内核发出光线照亮并扭曲着现实这或许就是重蹈现实的意义


上海chi K11美术馆张恩利和奧斯卡·穆里略双个展现场,2019.

8102:与现实有关 @Artforum

2018.12.29-2019.03.10 OCAT上海馆 | OCAT Shanghai


有人说相比过去和现在未来是最重要的因为没有将来我们干什么都没有意义所以新年这样的时刻无论多么地年复一年”,也总是让人期待。OCAT 上海于临近跨年时推出以影像创作为主的年轻艺术家群展“8102–与现实有关”,在面向未来之际显露出的却是身处当下的冷静这个来自7102年的网络梗充满着对当下过时之物的不屑以一种被加速时代长期刺激下的感官状态对现实进行品评调侃再将其狠狠抛诸脑后如此看来展览题目也许应该被这样读解 8102 怎么还跟我谈与现实有关”?



Nested – Su mei Tse @Artforum



With the title Stone Collection, I like to refer to a very simple gesture, a natural reflex that we had in childhood and even later to collect found stones while longing a path. The quality of choosing is very personal, intuitive. Here the idea is the same, just with a different scale and presenting a found object in the idea of an objet trouvé. As in previous works, I’m not interested in inventing something new but rather pointing on the existing, bring it to the foreground and create a visual composition.

For me the presence of a scholar rock, as it traditionally did in a scholar’s room referring to nature and inspiring the creation, also confronts us (physically) to the question of scale. Scale not only in terms of dimension and weight but also in terms of time. These stones which have been washed and shaped (often by the stream of a river) during hundreds, thousands of years relativize our existence and brings a new perspective to the lapse of time that we have. In another work Red Ladder (The Scale) I present the same concern but with a certain smile. This laboriously forged object (sculpture) is less important for its material existence, but rather a (jokingly) link to its title and theme about scale. A kind of French word play: c’est une question d’échelle, it’s a question of scale (échelle means ladder but also scale). A reflexion I developed in different ways these last years.

The way to present these stones (and my work in general) is important for me. Here trying to create a meditative composition, a space for quiet contemplation and at the same time adding a “painterly” quality, renouncing any ornamentation but create a minimal background for each stone. The choice of color is carefully selected to vanish the obsolete, the “dust” and give a personal and playful note to this tradition that I appropriate into my work. I want to evoke the meditative moments through these works. My cultural background has to do with that interest and affinity in silence, but it is also a personal need. Already in 2003, I worked with our condition to be exposed to noise, speed, and stress. Being overwhelmed by information and impressions, the noise from outside but also noise inside us, provoked by our thoughts, restlessness, and agitation seriously affecting our life. That was also the reason I decided to create the “radical silence” for my solo exhibition “Air Conditioned” in the Luxembourg Pavilion at the 50th Venice Biennale.


Natural materials are also important in my creations. At the one hand, I like to work with natural elements for their visual and haptic quality. For example, in the series of “Moons”, I used marble as paint attracted by its deep and precious texture. At the same time, the use of marble has to do with my time in Rome, its unconscious influence on me but also its historical reference in Roman art. Then there is this red resin, in opposition to create a tension between marble and the strong red color treated in relation to the Japanese tradition of lacquer ware. So in a second reading, there’s a tension underneath the work between two countries and two cultures. This kind of tension relating to nature also embedded in the work Trees and Roots. I started it with a series of photographs of “everyday” moments of these trees with their wrapped roots waiting to be planted before adopting their new environment, the ground, being “rooted” again. I was touched by the fragility (and force) of this “exposed” situation, the beauty of the wrapped roots and the idea (and image) of the growing roots, “taking” the ground and gradually anchor themselves. Later I developed that image into bronze sculptures, working with the scale and space. Beside being inspired by nature and natural elements, I’m interested in the nature of the human being, the physical body and, especially, his spiritual soul. Through my work, I try to get closer to our intuition, to the essence of humankind and reflect to our existence in time and on earth.

My works often refer to words, language, literature, and books. So that people can see the paragraphs on the wall for corresponding works presented in Yuz Museum. During the preparations of the exhibition (the first venue of the touring show was in Luxembourg at the Mudam) I exchanged a lot with Christophe Gallois, the curator who has not only a sensitive reading and understanding of my work but also a deep and rich body of references. This vivid exchange has led to these “notes”, giving like a second layer of meaning. Besides of this, music also plays equivalent role in my creation. I think the most important for an artist is to use a personal language, to express ideas in the most honest way. As I grew up in a musical family, for me, music and sound are the “tools” to use to create images or to get inspiration from and express myself with that language I feel familiar with.

“Nested” is my first solo show in China, which composes interesting dynamics beneath the exhibition. The influence of oriental culture keeps floating in my works for last years. When I visited China (my family is in Hong Kong, to be precise) as a small child, I was fascinated by the landscape and the contrasts between the modern (contemporary) architecture and the tropical natural environment. The loud, busy and “wild” crowds, the smells on the markets and the excitement in the Cantonese language. When I visit China now, I can not speak of a “real” China still being a foreigner feeling that “wildness” in a way, but at the same time feeling very familiar, close the way of feeling, eating and perceiving. Maybe it remains in my works in some way.


我想用藏石系列指涉一个十分简单的动作,一种我们在童年就有,甚至延续到成年的条件反射在路上散步时收集发现石头选择是一个非常个人化与直觉性的过程。“藏石系列的理念也是如此只不过尺度不同而且是在拾得艺术”(objet trouvé)的概念下呈现这些现成物我一直对发明新的东西不感兴趣我更关注指认现有的事物将它们带入前景并创造出一个视觉上的构图

在我看来供石不仅如它在文人书房中的传统功用那样隐喻自然并激发创作灵感同时还使我们在身体上直面尺度的问题尺度不仅指尺寸和重量也包括时间这些经过河流千百年洗炼的石头使我们的存在相对化并为我们所经历的时间流逝带来新的视角在另一件作品红色梯子比例尺)》我表达了同样的关注但多了一些幽默感这件费心锻造的物品雕塑最关键之处可能并不在于其物质存在而是它的标题和与尺度概念之间玩笑式的联系它是一个法语的文字游戏:c’est une question d’échelle(这是一个尺度的问题)。échelle既指梯子也有尺度的意思

此次展览我尝试创造一个冥想的结构一个安静沉思的空间同时在其中加入一种绘画放弃任何装饰给每块石头创造一个最极简的背景颜色都经过精心挑选以消除过时与尘土的感觉为这一被我挪用进自己作品的传统增添一种个人化和俏皮的意味我对寂静的兴趣和亲近很大程度上与我的文化背景有关但它也是我的个人需求早在2003我就开始在作品中处理我们日常面对的噪音速度和压力问题我们无时无刻不被各种信息和观感淹没噪音不仅来自外部更来自于内心它严重影响着我们的生活这也是我选择在第50届威尼斯双年展卢森堡馆的个展空气调节”(Air Conditioned)中制造极端寂静的原因



我的作品经常涉及文字语言文学和书籍在余德耀美术馆的这次展览中观众可以看到墙上的段落与展出作品相互对应在准备展览期间巡展第一站是卢森堡的MUDAM美术馆),我和策展人Christophe Gallois交流很多他不仅对我的作品有敏感的解读还给出了深刻而丰富的参考文本我们之间的交流生成了这些笔记”,为作品编织了第二层意义当然音乐在我的创作中也很重要我认为艺术家最重要就是使用个人语言以最诚实的方式表达想法我出生于一个音乐世家对我而言音乐和声音就像工具”,我借由它们制作图像获取灵感用最熟悉的语言述说自身


I am that I am 弗朗西斯·埃利斯“消耗” @NOWNESS



试用弗朗西斯·埃利斯偏爱的方式,漫步在上海街头,局促的脚步、过剩的产品、一次性用品堆积的垃圾、路边被店家拴着脖子的狗,膨胀的物价与购买欲、“work hard, play harder” 般自我安慰……一切焦虑、仓皇弥漫在令人喉咙发痒的空气中,潜入身体内部。这是展览“消耗”(La Depense)被安置的城市,消费/耗费在乐观与悲丧的情绪之间牵扯着大众,或许你会在外滩美术馆那净白的殿堂中走进埃利斯的绘画,通过素描悉数与体会女孩盘发的动作。这位本可以在速写簿上留下宏伟建筑蓝图的艺术家,选择将时间耗费在平淡无常的生活细节之上。




关于龙卷风的研究,对纽结的风暴进行刻画生出了《出埃及记》近千幅相关素描手稿,女子重复着盘发并解开盘发的动作,以图像的方式与龙卷风关联在了一起。你尽可以打趣说,就像老天爷生气了会打雷,龙卷风或许就是“老天爷”在盘发。这听起来像个笑话,却被埃利斯认真对待了。至少在工作量上,他对龙卷风与盘发的诠释都付出了应有的敬意。基于圣经第三章第14节,摩西问神:如果以色列人问起你的名字要如何回答,神回答说:“我是我所是的。(I am that I am)”这句重复句式是盘发动作同义反复的隐喻,也事实上成为埃利斯创作的哲性注脚。另一方面,它为展览提出的“非生产性消耗”与“生产性消费”关系问题作出了回应。事物因其所是的,而成为其所是。这是埃利斯理解与肯定世界的方式,他用这种方式,逃逸现代社会追究效益、可测性、理性等等的价值体系。女子盘发,或许正是因为这没有任何意义,才值得他花将近四年的时间去描画。



Liquid Health 液态健康 @Goethe Open Space


Liquid Health is a fictional cultural and creative company established by Li Hanwei, which exploits Chinese culture to conduct brand development, thereby creating a cultural brand that is designed to cultivate the body-mind-soul-spirit of human beings. On 13 January 2019, the exhibition entitled by the brand’s name “Liquid Health” will open in the context of the Goethe Open Space at the Department of Culture and Education of the German Consulate General. The entire office space will be transformed into a private lounge of the brand, and also the latest product series of Spiritual Beauty Instrument will be launched on that day.

Beauty mask instruments, eyes massagers and face lifting instruments ….. All these provincial TV products stem from advertisements the artist watched as a child. These ads usually arise from very spontaneous and shallow thoughts, and end up with shoddy produced “landscapes”. They also form the narrow core of “Chinese Dream, Blue Dream”. Together with the artificially high GDP and the overwhelming promotion of a great nation image their advertisers share a common enemy, and these circumstances form a strong contrast to the “American dream” that once tempted many people of the world.


Ultimately, this exhibition may be seen as a confrontation between “Socialism with Chinese characteristics” and “American Imperialism.” Li Hanwei chose to stand on a side more related to himself. This means that he does not observe these Chinese phenomena with a Western gaze, but rather adopts abundant local resources in his artistic work. By so doing, he emphasizes more the cultural landscape in China’s special environment than just focusing on issues of pan-capitalism (like most post-internet art do).

If you would like to experience these cultural landscapes, just visit the Cross Tower at No. 318 Fuzhou Road in downtown Shanghai. Enter the lobby of this office building through the revolving door, and turn right into the “Liquid Health” high-grade private club. The first thing jumping into your sight will be the reception desk and the money drawing feng shui pool, which appear at the same time as our glittering brand logo. You can choose to stroll around, or lie on a comfortable lounge chair to watch the brand’s promotional videos. All this creates the cultural ambience for our brand. Three brand new spiritual beauty instruments, as this time’s blockbuster products released by Liquid Health, will provide unprecedented spiritual sublimation for customers by means of Chinese culture. Here, as a product, culture becomes purer and pleasing. The cultural impoverishment caused by the landscape will be compensated by a landscape correspondently. The healthy liquid, is the “zen” of lifestyle, “be water” encouraged by Bruce Lee, a cultural form that is floating and flexible, and it is also an anonymous thing, which is omnipresent, wrapping and pervading you.




想要体验这些景观,你需要找到位于上海市中心福州路318号的华设大厦,通过旋转门进入办公楼大厅,并右转步入“液态健康”的高级私人会所。首先映入眼帘的是接待前台与招财风水池,它们与金闪闪的品牌标识同时出现。你可以选择随处逛逛,或者躺在舒适的躺椅上观看品牌的宣传广告片,而这一切都是为了营造品牌的文化氛围。最新打造的三款美灵仪,作为“液态健康”此次推出的重磅产品,将通过中国文化为用户获得前所未有的精神升华境界。在这里,文化作为一种产品,变得更加纯粹并旷人心怡。景观造成的文化贫乏,也将由景观来弥补。健康的液态,是生活方式化的“禅意”,是李小龙的那句“像水一样(Be water)”,是流动随行的文化形态,也是无处不在包裹着浸染你的不具名的东西。